International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property


N.B.: General country data and external links have been provided by the Member State. * Uploaded: 01/2021

General Country data

The main cultural assets of Turkey

Turkey is renowned worldwide for its location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, characterized by a diverse heritage of civilizations that have lived in various stages of its history. The country is home to thousands of historical sites and monuments, several of which are located on the Silk Roads. They are inseparable from the past cultures and traditions, and bear witness to a multilayered history and cultural diversity.

The legal framework on cultural heritage conservation

Legislation on conservation goes back to late Ottoman measures against the illicit trade and exportation of antiquities dating from the 19th century.

  • The statutory conservation of cultural heritage of Turkey is provided initially by the article number 63 of the 1982 Constitution and for this purpose supportive and promotive measures are taken. It is accepted by the law number 2863, the law on the Conservation of the Cultural and Natural Property, which is in force since 1983, that all cultural heritage is qualified as state property.
  • All administrative procedures about conservation of cultural heritage are executed according to the law number 2863, regulations and other secondary legislation.
  • The articles number 65, 67, 68, 74 of the Law number 2863, include penal provisions about illicit trafficking, smuggling and unlawful excavations of cultural property.

The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) is the main authority responsible for the protection of cultural heritage as well as the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. In addition to the MoCT, the General Directorate of Foundations is responsible for restoration and controlling World Heritage properties belonging to the General Directorate of Foundations, such as the Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği, Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex, and various other historic buildings. The Ministry of Environment and Urbanism, on the other hand, deals with the protection of natural properties and sites.

The cultural and natural sites on the World Heritage List

The long history and rich cultural heritage of Turkey are represented on the UNESCO World Heritage List with eighteen properties, ranging chronologically from the first known prehistoric human settlements to the Middle ages and early Modern period; and typologically, from single monuments to multi-layered cities and cultural landscapes. The diversity of cultural civilizations, whose heritage has left its mark on various stages of history, is also reflected in the Tentative List of Turkey. These include Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Ottomans and many others.

Adhesion to ICCROM

Turkey is a Member State of ICCROM since 07/01/1969


Director-General: Cevat Erder from 1981 to 1988.

Mandates in ICCROM Council since 1958:

  • 1973-1975: K. Balkan
  • 1975-1977: Burhan TEZCAN
  • 1990-1993: Ülkü IZMIRLIGIL

ICCROM Staff since 1959: 1

Involvement of Turkish Nationals

Activities in/with Turkey since 2002

Activities details

Activities details

  • 2002 - 1 Mission(s)
  • 2005 - 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2006 - 2 Mission(s)
  • 2007 - 1 Course(s), 4 Mission(s)
  • 2011 - 1 Mission(s), 2 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2012 - 5 Mission(s), 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2013 - 3 Mission(s)
  • 2014 - 3 Mission(s)
  • 2016 - 5 Mission(s)
  • 2017 - 2 Mission(s), 1 Partnership(s)
  • 2018 - 1 Mission(s)
  • 2019 - 3 Mission(s), 1 Partnership(s)

External links

Governmental Cultural Institutions

* ICCROM reserves the right to moderate the content provided by Member States for country profiles to ensure that they remain within the scope of ICCROM’s mission and pertinent to cultural heritage. However, ICCROM does not take responsibility for the accuracy and validity of the content supplied. The ideas and opinions expressed are those of the Member States.